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American English Spelling

General Index

In addition to regular topics and authors, this index lists references to sounds (enclosed in virgules), letters and spellings (italicized), bound elements (prefixes, bound bases, suffixes) and particles (also all italicized). It also lists sets that contain at least one bound form (the bound form being cited first). Alphabetically, short sounds come first (for instance, /a/), followed in order by short sounds with diacritics (/ä/), long sounds (/a/), 1etters (a), and bound elements in the order bases, prefixes (a-), suffixes (-a), and particles. Schwa, /schwa/, is alphabetized after /e/ and before e.

For æ (ash), ð (edh), þ (thorn), wen, and yogh, see Runes. For IPA equivalents of the sound symbols used here, see pages xxxi-xxxii. For the IPA low back vowel sounds , see pages 204-5.

  


  

a | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | w | x | y | z

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A

/a/, 203, 213, 231; = a, 214-15; = ah, 216; = ai, 215, 216; = au, 215-16; history of, 213; shortened VCV and, 214-15; spellings of, 214-16; VC# and, 214; VCC and, 214

/ä/, 203, 204-6, 213, 231; = a, 232-33; = ah, 235; = e, 235; = o, 233-35; = ow, 235; shortened VCV and, 234-35; spellings of, 232-35; v and, 234; VC# and, 233, 234; VCC and, 233. See also /dotted o/

/a/, 53, 203; = a, 251-52; = ae, 257; = ai, 252-54; = aigh, 255; = ao, 257; = au, 257; = ay, 252-54; = e, 256; = ea, 256; = ee, 256; = ei, 254-55; = eigh, 255; = et, 256; = ey, 254, 255; history of, 249-51; persistent, 103-4; spellings of, 251-57; VCC and, 103-4; in VClV and VCrV, 251-52; VCV and, 251, 253-54; V.V and, 252, 254

a, 136-37, 207, 211, 212. See also /a/; /ä/; /a/; /dotted o/.

a- (assimilation of ab-), 196, 197

a- (assimilation of ad-), 190-91

a- (Old English), 111, 192

a- (privative), 110, 191

-a, 64

aa, 81

AarslefI, Hans, 97

ab-, 70, 177, 191, 196-97

-abil +, 46-47

-able, 40, 46-47, 156-57, 273

abs-, 196

ac-, 188-89, 356, 360, 372

-ac, 364

Accepted spellings, 27-29

Accessibility, 29, 32, 37, 49, 50-52, 124-25, 212

acci +. See [acu+, acci+]

-aceae, 270

-acean, 251, 412

-aceous, 251, 412

-acious, 251

[acu+, acci+], 192

ad-, 44-45, 50-51, 77-78, 177, 183, 188-93, 332, 336, 349, 354, 356, 360, 372, 383, 404, 418, 433, 446, 453

Adaption, and adoption, 17-20. See also Folk etymology; Integration; Periphery vs. center

Addition. See Duplicative addition; Simple addition

ae, 94. See also /a/; /e/; /e/

-ae, 269

aegi-, 270

aego-, 270

aer: See /âr/

af-, 188, 383

Affricates, 407, 421. See also /ch/, /j/

ag-, 188, 354

-age, 232, 420

agh. See /e/

ah. See /a/; /ä/; /e/

ai. See /a/; /a/; /e/; /i/

aigh. See /a/

air. See /âr/

-aire, 6

Akmajian, Adrian, et al., 338

al-, 188, 446

-al, 15, 34, 59, 138

A1brow, K. H., xxv, 4, 17

all, word-final, in monosyllables, 442-43

Alphabet, 207-9. See also Consonant letters; Runes; Vowel letters

American Heritage Word Frequency Book, xxviii

an- (assimilation of ad-), 188, 433

ana-, 64

Analogy, 10-12, 25, 50-51, 83, 104, 109, 139-41, 150, 153, 159-60, 180, 181, 184, 187, 190, 191-92, 210, 225, 226, 274, 275, 360, 370, 387, 444, 446. See also Conservative analogy

-ance, 434

-ancy, 434

Anderson, John. See Lass, Roger

-ane, 251

ann+, 432

-ant, 434

antenn+, 432

anti-, 262, 263

Antiadaption. See Dis-integration

ao. See /a/; /adotted u/

aou. See /adotted u/

ap-, 188, 336

/âr/ field, 27, 204, 454; = aer, 311; = air, 311; = ar, 308-9, 311; = arr, 309-10; = ear, 311; = eir, 311; = er, 310-11; = err, 310; spellings of, 308-11; = ur, 311

ar, See /âr/; /ôr/

ar-, 188, 453

arch +, 357

+arch, 64, 357

archa +, 357

-ard, 394

Aristotle, 16

Aronoff, Mark, xxvi, 51, 54, 56

arr. See /âr/

[arr+, err], 192

Artin, Edward, 205

-ary, 262, 263

as- (assimilation of ad-), 188, 404

as- (assimilation of ex-), 404

Ash. See Runes

Ashby, W. Ross, 9

Assimilation, 44-45, 49, 50-51, 57, 73, 75, 100, 177-98; /b/ and, 332; /d/ and, 341; /f/ and, 383; full, 178, 181, 182, 183-84, 185, 186, 188, 193, 195, 198, 328, 332, 336, 341, 354, 356, 372, 383, 397-98, 404, 428, 433, 446,453; /g/ and, 354; /k/ and, 356, 360; /l/ and, 442, 446; /m/ and, 428; /n/ and, 433; /p/ and, 336; partial, 178, 179, 182, 184,185,186,189-91,193-94,195-97,198; /r/ and, 450, 453; /s/ and, 400, 404; /t/ and, 349; /z/ and, 393, See also ab-; ad-; com-; dis-; en-; ex-; in-; ob-; sub-; syn-

-ast, 64

at-, 188, 349

-ate, 15, 151-52, 251

-atic, 116

-ation, 34, 119, 251

-ative, 251

[att+, apt], 192-93

/adotted u/, 203, 301; = ao, 306; = aou, 306; = au, 306; = aue, 306; = o, 306; = ou, 303, 305-6; = ow, 303-5; spellings of, 303-6

au. See /a/; /a/; /adotted u/; /dotted o/

aue. See /adotted u/

aur. See /ô/

aw, 212. See also /dotted o/

ay. See /a/; /e/; /e/; /i/

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B

/b/, 206, 327; = b, 328-31, 333; = bb, 327- 30, 332-33; = bd, 339; in clusters and concatenations, 329, 331; at complex boundaries, 328, 329, 332; after long vowels, 329, 331; = ph, 328; after reduced vowels, 329, 330, 333; after short vowels, 329-30, 332-33; shortening rules and, 329, 330; at simple boundaries, 329, 330; spellings of, 328-33; after vowel digraphs, 329, 331

b, 207; silent, 328. See also /b/

Baker, R. G. See Smith, Philip Ball, Alice Morton, 73

Bases, 32-33, 35; nonterminative, 82, 170-72

Bauer, Laurie, 112

Bazell, Charles, 207

bb, 76. See also /b/

bd, 328. See also /d/

bi-, 34

Bilabial stops, 178, 186, 327. See also /b/; /p/

Bissex, G. L., 17

Black, Max, 10

Bloomfield, Leonard, 16

Bolinger, Dwight, 17, 23

Bound elements, 32-33, 36

Boundaries, in explication, 56-63. See also Complex boundaries; Simple boundaries; Syllables

Bowman, Wayne, 25

Bradley, Henry, 17, 42

Brengelman, Fred, 4, 8, 12, 20, 53, 103-4, 145, 146, 155, 171, 462

bt, 328. See also /t/

buccan +, 317

+buke, 363

Bullokar, William, 3

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C

c, 93, 207; soft and hard, 70, 146-47, 185- 86, 355, 361-65, 370, 405. See also /ch/; /k/; /s/; /sh/

caffe +, 153

Campbell, A., 97, 207, 208

[cancell +, cancel], 171

cata-, 65

Caxton, William, 209-10, 352, 408, 417

cc, 76, 397. See also /ch/; /k/

cch. See /k/

Cedilla, 405

+ceit, 267

[+ceive, +cept], 44-45, 56, 267

+cess, 402

/ch/, 206, 209, 407; = c, 412; = cc, 412; = ch, 71, 412-15; in clusters and concatenations, 413, 414-15; palatalized spelling of, 412, 415-17; after reduced vowels, 413, 415; = s, 412; vs. /sh/, 410-11, 412, 415-16; after short vowels, 413-14, 415; shortening rules and, 413, 414; at simple boundaries, 413-14; spellings of, 412-17; = t, 412, 415-17; = tch, 412-14, 415; = tsch, 412; after vowel digraphs, 413, 415

ch, 71, 110,212. See also /ch/; /k/; /sh/

[chancell +, chancel], 17l

Chancery English, 14

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 13, 14

Chaytor, H. J., 21

Checked vowels. See Vowel sounds

chlor+, 358

chm. See /m/

Chomsky, Carol, xxv, 4

Chomsky, Noam, and Morris Halle, xxv, 4, 30, 52, 131, 211, 409

chor+, 358

+chron, 358

chrys +, 358

cht. See /t/

chth. See /th/

ck, 9, 72, 76, 210. See also /k/

Clanchy, M. T., 21

Clipping, 36, 61, 282

Closed syllables. See Vowel lengthening and shortening

cn. See /n/

co-, 178, 179

Code, in orthography: and environment, 5-9; and performance,. 4-9, 22, 139

Coelements. See Sets and coforms

Coforms. See Sets and coforms

col-, 177, 178, 446

com-, 28, 34, 177, 178-81, 311, 428, 433, 446, 453

Complex boundaries, 329. See also Assimi1ation; Duplicative addition; Twinning Rule; and individual consonant sounds

Complex long u. See /yu/

Complex words, 12, 86-87

Compound words, 12, 56-57, 73, 75, 80, 87, 164-65, 332, 336, 341, 349, 354, 383, 428, 453

con-, 177, 178, 179, 181, 433

Concatenations. See Consonant concatenations

Connate groups, 45-46

Conservative analogy, 11-12, 75, 80, 96, 104, 112, 118, 121, 122, 124, 135-36, 139- 41, 155, 159-60, 162, 173, 174, 194, 220, 276, 278, 353, 411, 425, 429, 431; Third Syllable Rule and, 139-41; twinning and, 173. See also Analogy

Consonant clusters, 71, 72, 74-75, 210; cumulations, 72; doublet equivalents, 72; doublets, 72, 76-77, 210, 363; simplifications, 55, 72; tight, 74, 331, 336, 340, 348, 353, 362-63, 366-67, 370-72, 382, 385-86, 402, 406, 414-15, 419, 427-28, 433, 445, 452-53. See also Doublet constraint; Final doublet constraints; Initial Doublet Rule; Mixed Voicing Rule; Triplet Rule

Consonant concatenations, 71, 73, 75-76, 210. See also Doublet constraint; Mixed Voicing Rule; Triplet Rule

Consonant digraphs, 71-72, 163, 209-10

Consonant letters, 210-12. See also Alphabet; Consonant digraphs

Consonant sequence rules, 71-80, 89

Consonant sounds, American English, 206, 210-12; voiceless vs. voiced, 73-74; vs. vowel sounds See also Vowel sounds

Content. See Meaning and content

Continental i, 91, 104, 152, 262, 271

Contractions, 373

Convergence, 48, 149, 153, 159-60, 192, 194, 222, 249-51, 258-59, 280-81, 285, 308, 321-26, 350, 355-56, 431, 444, 446. See also Analogy; Mixed convergence; /ur/ convergence

Cooper, Christopher, 145

Coote, Edmund, 145

cor-, 177, 178, 311, 453

[corall+, coral], 171

Correctness, 25-26, 27-29

Correspondences, sound and spelling, 10, 14-17, 22-24, 26-27, 31. See also individual sounds

coun-, 179

cq. See /k/

cqu. See /k/

Craigie, William, 14, 20, 87

crotch +, 414

[crumm+, crumb], 424

[crystall +, crystal], 171

cs. See /ks/; /s/

ct, 72. See also /t/

cten +, 345

Cumulations. See Consonant clusters

[curr+, +cur], 172

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D

/d/, 206, 327-28, 337-38; = bd, 339; = d, 327-28, 337, 339-41, 342; = dd, 327-28, 337, 341-42; = ddh, 339; = dh, 339; = ed, 338; = ld, 338-39; in clusters and concatenations, 340; at complex boundaries, 341; after long vowels, 341; after reduced vowels, 342; after short vowels, 340, 341-42; shortening rules and, 340; at simple boundaries, 339-40; spellings of, 338-42; after vowel digraphs, 340

d, 207; flapped, 338. See also /d/; /j/

Daneš, Frantisek, 6

[dazz+, daze], 150

dd, 76. See also /d/

ddh. See /d/

de-, 15, 194, 262

Demands, in orthography, 4, 5-9, 12-13, 29-31, 51, 162, 461-62

demi-, 263

Dental stops, 327. See also /d/; /t/

Dentals, before /dotted u/ and /ydotted u/, 299

Derivational suffixes. See Suffixes

De-stressing. See Stress

Dewey, Godfrey, xxviii-xxix

dg, 72, 210. See also /j/

dge, 76. See also dg

dh. See /d/

di- (assimilation of dis-), 193-94

Dialects, 13-14, 23-24, 40, 201-3

dif-, 193, 383

Digraphs. See Consonant digraphs; and individual vowel digraphs and individual consonants

Diphthongs, 53, 250, 301-6

dis-, 78, 177, 193-94, 383

Dis-integration, in orthography, 17-18, 20, 103, 334. See also Integration

Dissimilation, 334; and lost /r/'s, 449

Distribution rules, 82-87. See also Final s Rule; Final z Rule; Short Word Rule; y-to-i tactics

Disyllables, iambic and trochaic, 123-24

Dixon, Robert, 4

dj. See /j/

Dobson, E. J., xxix, 204, 213, 217, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 229, 230, 235, 239, 240, 241, 243, 307, 322, 339, 351, 360, 376, 380, 381, 388, 389, 399, 410, 417, 424, 425, 426, 430, 435, 440, 457, 458

Dolby, J. L., and H. L. Resnikoff, 123, 316, 451

Doublet consonants. See Consonant clusters

Doublet constraint, in consonant clusters and concatenations, 77-79, 180-81, 184, 189, 194, 331, 340, 348, 354. See also Mixed Voicing Rule

Doublet equivalents. See Consonant clusters

dt. See /t/

[duell +, duel], 172

Duplicative addition, 100, 328, 332, 336, 341, 349, 354, 383, 393, 400, 403, 428, 433-34, 442, 446, 450, 453

dvi+, 340

/dw/, 74

dwo+ (Indo-European root), 346

/dz/, 74

/dzh/, 407, 421

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E

/e/, 203; = ae, 221; = ai, 220; = ay, 220; = e, 217-19; = ea, 219-20; = ei, 220-2;; = eo, 221; history of, 217, 219, 220-21; = ie, 220; shortened VCV and, 218-19; spellings of, 217-21; = u, 221; VC# and, 218; VCC and, 217-18; word-final, 220

/e/, 203, 211; = ae, 268-70; = agh, 270; = ah, 270; = ay, 270; = e, 260-62; = ea, 264-67; = ee, 264-67; = ei, 267-68; = eo, 270; = ey, 268; history of, 258-59; = i, 91, 104, 152, 262-64; vs. /i/, 91; = ie, 267-68; = oe, 268-70; spellings of, 260-70; VC# and, 261, 264; VCC and, 262,264; VCrV and, 261; VCV and, 260, 263,264; V.V and, 260-61, 262, 263, 264; = y, 262

/schwa/ (schwa), 149-51, 152, 153, 203; /i/ and, 222-23; vs. /u/, 242

/schwal/; = ile, 152; = le, 149-51

e, 136-37, 207, 211, 212. See also /ä/; /a/; /e/; /e/; /i/; /y/

e- (assimilated form of ex-), 181,182

e+ (initial particle), 48-49

ea. See /a/; /e/; /e/; /i/

-ean ,260

ear. See /âr/; /ê/; /ô/; /ur/

eau. See /o/; /yu/

ec-, 182, 368, 372

Ecriture, 22

-ed (noun suffix), 40

-ed (verb suffix), 7, 33, 34, 40, 61, 166, 338, 343

Edh. See Runes

ee, 81, 94, 157-58. See also /a/; /e/; /i/

-ee, 94

eer; See /ê/

-eer; 317, 318

ef-, 181, 383

-efy, 276

ei. See /a/; /e/; /i/; /i/

eigh. See /a/

eir: See /âr/

Element boundaries. See Boundaries; Complex boundaries; Merging

Elements, 32-39; bound, 32-33, 36; free, 32-33, 36; vs.. morphemes, 33; nonterminative, 32-33, 37-39, 46-47, 170-72; syllables and, 59-60; terminative, 32-33, 37-39. See also Bases; Particles; Prefixes; Sets and coforms; Suffixes

em-, 187-88

Emery, Donald, 25, 27, 166, 168, 440, 441, 450

en-, 177, 187-88

-ence, 49, 59, 434

-ency, 434

English alphabet. See Alphabet

enn+, 432

-ent, 59, 434

Environment, and code, in orthography, 5-9

eo. See /e/; /e/; /o/

-eous, 260

/êr/ field, 204, 315, 454; = aer; 318; = ear; 313, 317; = eer; 313, 317; = eir; 318; = er; 316; = ier; 313, 318; = ir; 316, 318; = irr; 316; spellings of, 316-18; = yr; 318

er. See /âr/; /êr/; /ur/

-er (agent suffix), 40, 54, 60, 166, 171, 318. See also -our

-er (comparative), 34, 60, 167

err. See /âr/

-ery, 141

-es. See [-s, -es]

-esce, 398

-ess, 405

-est, 34, 167

et. See /a/

-et, 347

-etic, 116

-ette, 347, 348

-ety, 81, 273

Etymological analysis. See Explication

Etymological demand, l2-13, 17-20, 47, 51, 461, 462

eu, 459. See also /dotted oi/; /u/; /yu/

-eum, 260

Euphonic e. See e+

eur. See /ur/; /dotted ur/; /ydotted ur/

Evans, John, 145

ew, 212. See also /o/; /u/; /yu/

ex-, 49, 177, 181-83, 192, 368, 372, 383, 390, 404

[excell +, excel], 171

Explicata, immediate vs, mediate, 44-45

Explication, 28, 32-66, 462; accessibility in, 32, 37, 51-52; boundaries in, 56-63; elements in, 32-33; vs. etymological analysis, 50-51; vs. generative grammar, 51-52; mediate and immediate explicata, 44-45; particles in, 33, 47-49; vs. phonological analysis, 52-55; primes in, 36-37; processes in, 32; semantic relationships in, 55-56; sets and, 39-47; spelling act and, 49-50; summarized, 66

extra-, 371

ey. See /a/; /e/; /i/

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F

/f/, 180, 206, 374-75; in clusters and concatenations, 378-80, 382; at complex boundaries, 380, 383; = f, 377-78, 380, 381-82, 384; = ff, 377, 380, 381, 383-84; = ft, 378, 380; = gh, 274, 378, 379-80; history of, 377-78; = lf; 72, 378, 380; after long vowels, 380, 382; = ph, 20, 210, 377-79; = pph, 379; after reduced vowels, 380, 384; after short vowels, 380-81, 382-84; shortening rules and, 380, 382; at simple boundaries, 378-79, 380, 381; spellings of, 378-84; vs. /v/, 374-75; after vowel digraphs, 380, 382; word-final, 380, 38]

f, 93, 207. See also /f/, /v/

fac+, 46

far+, 46

feas+, 46

+fect, 46

Feedback, positive and negative, 5-9, 22, 40

+feit, 46, 229

+fet; 56, 168-70, 323

fet+, 46

fett+, 46

+fex, 46

ff; 76. See also /f/

ffe, 76, 381

fg, 75

[+fic, +fy], 46

+fice, 46

Final doublet constraints, 38, 76-77

Final e, 145-60; deletion of, 26, 28, 38, 70, 154-60; fossil, 148-54, 253-54, 381, 401, 415, 431, 432, 444; functions of, 96-97, 103-4, 145-54; history of, 99, 103-4; insulating, 147-48, 238, 253, 290, 394-95; long vowels and (See VCV); soft c and g and, 70, 146-47, 155-56, 238, 406; Short Word Rule and, 88-89, 148; in VCV, 145, 148-49, 151-54; in Ve#, 145; voiced th and, 147, 386; in word-final le, 149-51

Final s Rule, 82-83, 148

Final z Rule, 83-84, 148, 392

Fisher, John, 14, 207

+fit, 46

fl, 74

[flamm+, flame], 427

Flap Rule, 338

Flapped d, 338

Flapped t, 342-43

[flocc+, flock], 172

fluor+, 321

Folk etymology, 18-19, 51, 60, 192, 274, 343, 387, 429

Fossils: n's in French adoptions, 6-7. See also Final e

Fowler, H. W., 268-69, 390

/fr/, 74

Free elements. See Elements

Free vowels. See Vowel sounds

French fossil e's. See Final e

Fricatives, before /u/, 298. See also Palatal sibilants; Simple fricatives

Front stops, 327-49. See also /b/; /d/; /p/; /t/

ft, 74. See also /f/

/fth/, 334

-ful(l), 77, 79, 243, 383, 441

Full assimilation. See Assimilation

+fy. See [+fic, +fy]

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G

/g/, 206, 207, 350; = ckg, 352; in clusters and concatenations, 353-54; at complex boundaries, 354; = g, 350, 352-54, 355, 436; = gg, 350, 35l, 352, 354-55; = gh, 209-10, 350, 352; = gu, 350-51; before le, 355; after long vowels, 354; after reduced vowels, 355; after short vowels, 353, 354-55; shortening rules and, 353; at simple boundaries, 352; spellings of, 350-55; = tg, 352; after vowel digraphs, 354; = x, 350, 351-52

g, 207; soft and hard, 146-47, 350-51, 353, 417. See also /g/; /j/; /zh/

Gelb, I.J., 207

[gemm +, gem], 171

Generative grammar. See Exp1ication

geo-, 260

Gestalt psychology, 29-30, 31, 461

gg, 72, 76, 351, 417-18. See also /g/; /j/

gh, 71,102, 111, 209-10, 212, 239-40, 247-48, 255, 271, 274, 286, 294, 345-46, 352, 378. See also /a/; /e/; /f/; /g/; /i/; /k/ /o/; /t/; Velar fricative

ght, 102, 237, 239-40, 274. See also /t/

Glides, 411, 415, 416, 431, 457, 459-60

[glatt+, +glot] , 171

gm. See /m/

gn, 15, 20, 72, 103, 180, 275, 299. See also /n/

Goody, Jack, 17, 22, 462

Gould, Stephen Jay, 7-8

[gramm +, gram], 174, 427

Grammatical content. See Meaning and content

Graphemes, 207

Graphotactics, 69. See also Tactics and tactical rules

Great Vowel Shift, 213, 219, 247, 249, 256, 259, 271, 280, 288, 292

Grimm, Jacob, 97

gu, 350-51

Gumb, Raymond, 10

/gw/, = gu, 351, 457

[gymn+, gymnasi+, gym], 63-64

/gz/, = x, 74, 351-52, 370

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H

/h/, 23, 206; a vs. an before, 390; in clusters, 386; = h, 386-87, 388-89; spellings of, 386-90; = wh, 71-72, 387-88, 389. See also /hw/

h, 62, 178, 207, 211, 212, 343-44, 389-90. See also /h/; /hw/

Haas, W., 207

Halle, Morris. See Chomsky, Noam

Hanna, Paul R., Jean S. Hanna, R. E. Hodges, and Erwin H. Rudorf, Jr., xxviii, 4, 214, 217, 223, 231, 241, 244, 251, 260, 272, 281, 284, 289, 299, 302, 303, 316, 327, 328, 337, 342, 350, 356, 376, 380, 384, 386, 391, 396, 397,400, 405, 407, 412, 417, 426, 429, 437, 439, 447-48, 456

Hard c. See c

Hard g. See g

Hart, John, 3

hatch +, 414

Havelock, Eric, 17, 461, 462

Head vowels, 90

Heller, Louis, and James Macris, 23

hier+, 319

High short o. See /dotted o/

High short u. See /dotted u/

Hodges, Richard (l7th c.), 104

Hodges, Richard (20th c.), 4. See also Hanna

Holdouts, 4, 10, 30-31; to /a/ = a correspondence, 215-16; to assimilation of ad-, 189-91; to assimilation of com-, 180-81; to assimilation of ex-, 182; to assimilation of syn-, 198; to doublet constraint, 78-80; to final e deletion, 156-57, 158-59; to Final s Rule, 82-83; to Final z Rule, 84; to Initial Doublet Rule, 76; to Mixed Voicing Rule, 75-76; to oi vs. oy distribution, 302-3; to Short Word Rule, 89; to soft g, 146-47; to Stress Frontshift Rule, 129-30; to Suffix -ic Rule, 116-18; to Suffix -id Rule, 120-21; to Suffix -ion Rule, 119; to Suffix -ish2 Rule; 122; to Suffix -it Rule, 120; to Suffix -ity Rule, 114; to Suffix -ule Rule, 122; to Third Syllable Rule, 134-38; to Twinning Rule, 174-76; to VC# pattern, 94; to VCC pattern, 101-7; to VCle# pattern, 105-6; to VCV pattern, 107-8, 112, 127-30; to V.V pattern, 93; to y-to-i tactics, 84, 86-87

Holmberg, Borje, 213

homeo-, 260

-hood, 242

[horr+, +hor], 172

Householder, Fred, 11, 17, 23

hu, = /w/, 456

Hultzen, Lee, 72

/hw/, 23, 458; = wh, 71-72, 388-89

hydr+, 47-48

Hyphens, 77, 78, 165, 179, 383

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I

/i/, 203; = a, 151-52; = ai, 279; = e, 222, 228; = ea, 229; = ee, 229; = ei, 229; history of, 222; = i, 152-53, 154, 222, 223-26; = ie, 229; = o, 228; in shortened VCV, 224-25, 227; spellings of, 223-30; stressed and unstressed, 151-53, 154, 222-23; = u, 228-29; = ui, 229-30; v and, 224; in VC#, 224, 227; in VCC, 223, 226-27; = y, 84-85, 222, 226-27

/i/, 203; = ai, 279; = ay, 279; = ei, 278; = eigh, 278; = ey, 279; history of, 271-72; = i, 152-53, 154, 272-76; = ie, 278; = oy, 279; spellings of, 272-79; = uy, 279; in VCC, 271, 275, 277-78; in VClV and VCrV, 274-75, 277; in VCV, 272, 276-77; in Ve#, 273; in V.V, 272-73, 277; = y, 85, 276-78

i, 16, 20, 118-19, 136, 207, 208, 459-60; j and, 207, 208, 417; before suffixes, 47, 57-59, 132; vowel and consonant, 208; y and, 58, 84-87, 207, 208, 271-72. See also Continental i; /e/; /i/; /y/: y-to-i tactics

-i, 81, 273

+i+ (particle), 47-48, 57-59, 86-87

-ia, 137-38, 263

-ial, 43

Iambic disyllables. See VCV

-ian, 263

i-before-e pattern, 220, 229, 267

[-ible, ibil+], 47. See also -able

-ic, 34, 65, 115-18, 127, 161, 172-73, 174, 215, 218, 220, 224, 227, 234, 330, 335-36, 340, 347, 353, 364, 365, 366, 382, 419, 427, 432-33, 444-45, 452

-ical, 366

-ication, 366

-icose, 366

-ics, 372

-id, 219, 330, 335-36, 347, 353, 365, 419, 427, 444, 452

-idae, 121, 270

-ide, 272

ie, 95, 157. See also /e/; /i/; /i/

-ier, 318

ier: See /êr/

-ies, 375

ieu. See /yu /

iew. See /yu/

-iff, 373-74, 384

-ification, 366

-ify, 276

ii, 81-82

il, 186, 446

-ile, 152, 272

Ill-formed spellings, 26-27

im-, 186, 428

Immediate explicata. See Explicata

in- (in), 177, 186-87, 191, 316, 428, 446, 453; en- and (See en-)

in- (not), 34, 177, 186-87, 316, 428, 446, 453

-ine, 152-53, 263, 272

-ineae, 270

Inflectional suffixes. See Suffixes

-ing, 34, 36, 40, 155, 166, 167, 437

Initial Doublet Rule, 20, 76

Initial particle. See e+

Insulating. See Final e; Final s Rule; Final z Rule; u; v

Integration, in orthography, 4, 5-9, 17-20, 40, 69-70, 81-82, 83, 85, 89, 100, 103, 126, 127-28, 129, 170-72, 190, 195-96, 231-32, 356, 361, 362, 367, 407-8, 422, 430. See also Dis-integration; Periphery vs, center

-ion, 28, 36, 39, 40, 41-42, 43, 44, 47, 118-19, 129, 132, 224, 262, 263, 347, 353, 365, 416, 419, 422, 432-33, 434, 460

-ionn+, 47

-ior, 262, 263

-ious, 262, 263

-ique, 263

/ir/, 318-19; = ier; 319-20; = ir; 319; spellings of, 319-20; = yr, 319

ir. See /êr/; /ir/; /ur/

ir-, 186, 453

irr. See /êr/

-ise, See -ize

-ish1 (forms adjs.), 121, 409

-ish2 (forms verbs), 121-22, 173, 219, 409, 427, 432-33, 444, 452

-ism, 34, 395

-ist, 34, 64; -st coform of, 65

-it, 120, 219, 224, 330, 335-36, 340, 427, 452

-ite, 28, 154, 272

-ition, 119

-itis, 272

-ity, 34, 112-15, 133, 161, 173, 215, 218, 224, 234, 262, 340, 347, 353, 365, 377, 402, 427, 432-33, 444, 452, 460; -ety coforrn of, 81

-ium, 137-38, 264

-ive, 40, 373-74

-ization, 394

-ize, 34, 83, 87, 272; -ise coform of, 65, 83, 272; -ze coform of, 81

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J

/j/, 47, 206, 208, 407; in clusters and concatenations, 418, 419, 420-21; = d, 407, 417-18, 420; = dg, 417-18, 420; = dj, 417-18; = g, 146-47, 417-18, 419-20, 421; = gg, 351, 417-18; history of, 417-18; = j, 417-18, 420-21; after long vowels, 418, 420; palatalized spelling of, 417-18, 420; after reduced vowels, 418, 420; after short vowels, 418,419,420; and shortening rules, 418; at simple boundaries, 418-19, 420-21; spellings of, 417-21; after vowel digraphs, 418, 420; /zh/ and, 146, 421-22

j, 93, 207, 208, 209, 417-18, 460. See also /j/; /zh/

Jespersen, Otto, xxix, 12, 23, 34, 87-88, 91, 97, 103, 104, 114, 131, 133, 135, 139, 180, 204, 213, 217, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 239, 240, 241, 243, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 256, 258, 259, 270, 274, 275, 277, 280, 281, 285, 289, 291, 292, 297, 301, 307, 319, 322, 325, 327, 339, 341, 343, 351, 355, 356, 360, 373, 376, 378, 380, 381, 385, 387, 388, 389, 391, 397, 399, 400, 409, 410, 411, 413, 417, 421, 424, 425, 426, 430, 435, 443

[jogg+, jog],150

Johnson, Samuel, 279, 334, 369, 417

Jones, Darnel, 344

+journ , 186

ju, = /w/, 456

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K

/k/, 206, 207, 350, 436, 437, 438; = c, 355-56, 357, 361-62, 363-70, 398, 436; = cc, 356; = cch, 356, 358; = ch, 20, 49-50, 71, 355, 356-58, 436; = ck, 70, 356, 361-62, 368-70; in clusters and concatenations, 366-68; = cq, 360; = cqu, 360; = gh, 361; history of, 355-56; = k, 70, 355-56, 361-65, 366-68, 436; = kg, 361; = kh, 356, 361; = kk, 356; = lk, 356, 360-61; after long vowels, 361, 363; = q, 356, 358-59; = qu, 355, 356, 358, 359- 60; after reduced vowels, 361, 364, 366, 369-70; = sc, 361; after short vowels, 361-62, 363, 365, 368-69; shortening rules and, 361, 365; spellings of, 356-72; word-final, 70; = x, 360

k, 207, See also /k/; k-insertion rule

k-insertion rule, 31, 47, 361-62, 368, 370

kal +, 363

Katz, David, 29

/kd/, 75

Kenyon, John, and Thomas Knott, 91, 204-5, 223, 262, 335, 388, 410, 416, 458-59

ker+, 363

Kerek, Andrew, 23

kg, See /k/

kh. See /k/

+khana, 64

Kim, Suksan, 97, 100

kk, 76. See also /k/

kl, 74

klept+, 363

Klima, Edward, 42

kn. See /n/

Knott, Thomas. See Kenyon, John

Koffka, Kurt, 29-30

Kohler, Wolfgang, 29

/kr/, 74

/ks/, 74, 370-72

/kt/, 74, 361, 366

Kurath, Hans, 53, 97, 205

/kw/, 10, 106-7, 355, 358-60, 457

kwi + (Indo-European root), 63

kwo+ (Indo-European root), 63,

kym+, 363

kyph +, 363

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L

/l/, 79-80, 204, 206, 211, 212, 232, 233, 239, 241, 439; in clusters and concatenations, 442,445; at complex boundaries, 166-68, 442, 446; = l, 439, 440-42, 444-46, 447; = ll, 170-71, 440-43, 445, 446-47; = ln, 439, 440; after long vowels, 442, 445-46; after reduced vowels, 442, 447; after short vowels, 441-43, 444-45, 447; shortening rules and, 442, 444-45; at simple boundaries, 170-71; = sl, 439-40; spellings of, 439-47; after vowel digraphs, 442, 445, 446; word-final, 38, 77, 166-68, 440-43, 444

l, 93, 101-2, 207, 439; vs. ll spellings, 166- 68, 440-41. See also /l/; /r/

Labials, before /ydotted u/, 297-98

Ladefoged, Peter, 74, 206

Langue, 22

Lass, Roger, xxvi; and John Anderson, 100

Laszlo, Ervin, 9

Lax vowels. See Vowel sounds

/lb/, 74

ld, 97, 98, 101-2, 258, 268, 271, 275, 280, 285. See also /d/

le#, 149-51. See also VC'C'le

[leng+, long], 437

-less, 77, 405, 446

-let, 34

Letters. See Alphabet

Levins, Peter, 145

Levitt, Jesse, 23

Lexical simplification, 61

lf, 72. See also /f/

-like, 77, 272

Linell, Per, 52

Linking i and o particles. See Particles

Linksz, Arthur, 270

Liquids, 74, 79-80, 211, 298, 348, 439-55. See also /l/; /r/

lk, 101-2. See also /k/

ll, 76, 77, 101-2, 170-71, 264, 459. See also /l/

1m, 101-2, 424-25

ln. See /l/

+log(ue), 351

Long a. See /a/

Long consonants. See Old English

Long e. See /e/

Long i. See /i/

Long o. See /o/

Long u; complex (See /yu/); simple (See /u/)

Longest Common String. See Principle of Longest Common String

Low back vowels. See /ä/; /dotted o/; Vowel sounds

Low short o. See /ä/

Low short u. See /u/

lt, 101-2, 285

lv, 380. See also /v/

[ly+, lyse, +Iyte], 64-65

-ly, 34, 36, 262, 446

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M

/m/, 180, 206, 423; = chm, 426; in clusters and concatenations, 427-28; at complex boundaries, 428; before /f/, 180; = gm, 423, 425-26; = 1m, 423, 424-25; after long vowels, 428; = m, 423, 426-28, 429; = mb, 54-55; 72, 423-24; = mh, 426; = mm, 423, 426, 427, 428-29; = mn, 423, 425; = mp, 426; after reduced vowels, 429; after short vowels, 427, 429; shortening rules and, 427; at simple boundaries, 426-27; = sm, 426; spellings of, 423-29; = tm, 426; before v, 180; after vowel digraphs, 428

m, 100, 207. See also /m/

mamm+, 427

[mann+, man], 432

Marchand, Hans, 34

mark+, 363

/mb/, 74

mb, 54-55, 72, 91, 98, 271, 275, 280, 328. See also /m/

McLuhan, Marshall, 21

Meaning and content, 35, 51, 55-56

[medall +, medal], 170

Mediate explicata. See Explicata

-ment, 79, 434

Merging, 55, 59-60, 61-63, 109, 236, 295, 449

mess+, 402

[metall +, metal], 38, 39

Metathesis, 225, 389, 458-59

mho. See /m/

Miege, Guy, 145, 421

Minims, 108, 245-47

Minimum and maximum simplicities, in orthography, 29-30, 31

mis-, 79

[+miss, +mit], 39, 45-46, 56, 402

Mixed convergence, 196-97, 216, 221, 229, 230, 270, 275, 334, 357, 358, 389, 449, 457

Mixed Voicing Rule, .73-76, 193, 195, 370-72

mm, 76. See also /m/

mn. See /m/; /n/

mon+, 49

Monaghan, E. J., 132

Morphemes, vs. elements, 33

Morphophones, 202-6, 307

Mossé, Fernand, 97, 100, 133, 207, 258, 271

mp. See /m/

mps, 72

Mulcaster, Richard, 3-4, 5, 8, 13-14, 17, 30, 31, 103, 145, 203, 208-9, 463

myrmec+, 326

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N

/n/, 206, 232, 423, 429; = cn, 431-32; in clusters and concatenations, 433; at complex boundaries, 15, 433-34; = gn, 20, 72, 429, 430-31; = kn, 429-30; after long vowels, 430-31, 433; = mn, 429, 431; = n, 429,432-33,434-35; = ng, 432; = nn, 429, 433-35; = pn, 429, 431; after reduced vowels, 20, 28, 434-35; after short vowels, 432-33, 434; shortening rules and, 432-33; at simple boundaries, 432; spellings of, 429-35; after vowel digraphs, 433

n, 100, 207. See also /n/

Nasals, 74, 423-38. See also /m/; /n/; /ng/

/nd/, 74

nd, 97, 98, 102, 268, 271, 275

Negative feedback. See Feedback

neo-, 260

-ness, 79, 405, 433-34

Nessly, Larry, 52

neur+, 321

Newman, Stanley, 112

Ney, James, xxviii

/ng/ (eng), 10, 70, 206, 353, 423; history of, 435; = m, 436; = n, 10,435-37; = ng, 10, 435, 437-38; spellings of, 436-38

ng, 353, 432. See also /ng/

/ngg/, 74, 435

nn, 76. See also /n/

[noi+, +noy], 303

Nonterminative elements. See Elements

Nonterminative suffixes. See Suffixes

Norman scribes, 13-14, 108, 208-10, 355, 358, 373, 383, 391, 408, 413, 457, 458

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O

/dotted o/, 203, 422-23; = a, 239; = au, 237-38; = aw, 236-37; before C#, 236-37; before CC, 236, 237; before CV, 236, 238; = o, 238-39; = oa, 240; = ou, 239-40; spellings of, 236-40. See also /ä/

/o/, 203; = au, 281, 286; = eau, 281, 286; = eo, 287; = ew, 286-87; history of, 280-81; = o, 280-83; = oa, 280, 281, 284; = oh, 286; = oo, 286; = ou, 281, 285-86; = ough, 281, 286; = ow, 281, 284-85; spellings of, 281-87; VCC and, 101-2, 104, 283, 446; Ve# and, 281; VClV and, 283; VCV and, 281; V.V and, 281; word-final, 282-83

o, 207. See also /ä/; /adotted u/; /i/; /dotted o/; /o /; +o+; /u/; /dotted u/

o- (assimilated form of ob-), 195, 196

+o+ (linking particle), 33, 47-48, 49

oa. See /dotted o/; /o/

oar: See /ô/

ob-, 177, 195-96, 336, 356, 372, 383

oc-, 195, 356, 372

-ock, 369-70

oe, 95, 158. See also /e/; /o/; /u/

-oecia, 270

of-, 195, 383

og. See ogue

og-, 195

ogue, 238-39

oh. See 161

/dotted oi/, 203; = eu, 303; = oi, 20, 302; = oy, 302; = uoy, 303; history of, 301; spellings of, 302-3

oi. See /dotted oi/

-oid, 302

Old English: long consonants in, 97; Third Syllable Rule in, 133. See also Vowel lengthening and shortening

omni-, 34

O'Neill, Wayne, 205

Ong, Walter, 17, 461, 462

Onions, C. T., 19

oo, 299. See also /o/; /u/; /dotted u/; /u/

oor. See /ôr/ /dotted ur/

op-, 195, 336

Open syllables. See Vowel lengthening and shortening

/ôr/ field, 204, 454; = aor; 315; = ar; 313, 314; = arr; 313; = aur: 315; = ear: 315; = er; 315; = oar; 314; = oor; 315; = or; 311-13; = orr; 311-12; = our; 314-15; spellings of, 311-15; /wôr/ = war; 313

or. See /ôr/

-or, 54. See also -er

Orm, 97, 341, 381

orr. See /ôr/

Orthographic concepts, 52-55

-os+, 47

Oswalt, Robert, xxv, 4, 91, 96, 135, 140

ou, 81. See /adotted u/; /dotted o/; /o/; /u/; /dotted u/; /u/

ough, See /f/; /o/; /u/

our. See /ôr/; /ur/; /dotted ur/

-our, 54

-ous, 47, 59

ow, 81, 212, 303-5, See also /ä/; /adotted u/; /o/

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P

/p/, 201, 206, 327-28; = bp, 334-35; in clusters and concatenations, 336; at complex boundaries, 336-37; = gh, 334; after long vowels, 336; = p, 327-28, 333, 335-36, 337; = ph, 334; = pp, 327-28, 333-34, 335, 336-37; after reduced vowels, 337; after short vowels, 335-37; shortening rules and, 335-36; at simple boundaries, 335; spellings of, 333-37; after vowel digraphs, 336

p, 207, 425, 426. See also /p/

[+pair; pare], 26-27

Palatal sibilants, 407-22. See also /ch/; /j/; /sh/; /zh/

Palatalization,. 23, 44, 47, 58, 407. See also /ch/; /j/; /sh/; /zh/

para-, 64

[parcell +, parcel], 171

Parole, 22

Parsons, Talcott, 9

Partial assimilation. See Assimilation

Particles, 32, 33, 47-49, 56-59; initial, 48-49; linking, 47-48, 234-35; nontactical, 47. See also Etymological demand; +i+; k-insertion rule; +o+; Palatalization; Phonetic demand; Twinning Rule

Partridge, Eric, 34, 48, 50, 149, 179, 195, 266, 437

Pattern and regularity, 4, 5-12, 14-20, 24, 25-26, 27-31, 32, 39-40, 41, 62-63, 69-70, 82-87, 91, 112, 123-24, 161-62, 168-70, 439, 440-41; subelemental and subsyllabic, 62-63. See also Rules and ruliness; Strings; Tactics and tactical rules; VCC; VCV; etc.

pb. See /b/

+peat, 57

[pencill+, pencil], 171

[penn+, pen], 171, 432

Pennant, 19

Penzl, Herbert, 355

Performance. See Code

Periphery vs. center, in orthography, 6-7, 17-20, 40, 81-82, 85, 100, 126, 127-28. See also Integration

Perrin, Porter, 179

Persistent long u. See /u/

[personn+, person], 172, 174

+pete, 28, 37, 38

ph, 71, 111, 210. See also /f/

+phile, 379

+phobe, 379

Phonemes, 11, 201-3, 207

Phonemic spelling, 3-4, 13-14, 201-3

Phones, 11, 201

Phonetic demand, 12-20, 47, 461-62

Phonetic spelling, 3-4, 13-14, 201-3

Phonotactics, 69. See also Tactics and tactical rules.

phot +, 379

phth. See /t/; /th/

phys+, 379

[pistill +, pistil], 171

+piter. See [+pter; +piter]

pleur+, 321

[plumm +, plumb], 427

pn. See /n/

pneum+, 431

Position, in Latin, 99-100

Positive feedback. See Feedback

pp, 76. See also /p/

pph. See /f/

pre-, 262

Preemption, 12, 14-17, 113, 114, 115, 117, 120-21, 131-33, 134-38, 139-41, 155, 172-73, 174-75, 183, 291. See also Holdouts

Preferred regularity. See Principle of Preferred Regularity

Prefixes, 32-34, 35, 36, 48, 57, 105, 177-98

Primes, 36-37, 140-41

Principle of Preferred Regularity, 25-26, 147, 157, 166-67, 168, 170, 218, 441

Principle of Longest Common String, 57

Prins, A. A., xxix, 213, 217, 219, 220, 221, 222, 231, 233, 240, 245, 247, 250, 259, 271, 280, 285, 289, 297, 301, 307, 322, 327, 351, 373, 378, 385, 388, 409, 443

pro-, 36, 46

Processes and procedural rules, 9-10, 32. See also Assimilation; Final e deletion; Palatalization; Simple addition; Twinning Rule

ps. See /s/

psamm +, 399

pseud +, 399

psil+, 399

psor+, 399

psych+, 399

psychr+, 399

/pt/, 74

pt. See /t/

[+pter; +piter], 19, 192

Pulgram, Ernst, 207

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Q

q, 207, 208, 356, 457. See also /k/; qu

qu, 10, 95, 106-7, 355, 356, 437, 457. See also q

questionn+, 174

Quirk, Randolph, et al.., 34

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R

/r/, 79-80, 204, 206, 211, 232, 439; in clusters and concatenations, 450, 452-53; at complex boundaries, 450, 453; = l, 449; after long vowels, 450, 453; = r, 447-48, 450-53, 454-55; after reduced vowels, 322, 451, 454-55; = rh, 20, 71-72, 76, 447, 448-49; = rps, 449; = rr, 447-48, 450-51, 452, 453-54; = rrh, 76, 449, 451; after short vowels, 450-52, 454; shortening rules and, 450, 451-52; spellings of, 447-55; after vowel digraphs, 450, 453; = wr, 447=48

r, 207. See also /r/

[raill+, rail], 172

Rapaport, Anatol, 9

Rask, R. K., 97

/r/-colored vowels, 307-26

re-, 33, 177, 262

're, 315

Read, Charles, 32

Reduced vowels, xxvi, 83, 90-91, 168, 203; /i/ and, 222-23; vs. /u/, 241, 242. See also individual consonant sounds

Registers, 20, 38, 171, 197

Regularity, in orthography. See Pattern and regularity; Rules and ruliness

/rg/, 74

rh, 76, 212. See also /r/

Roberts, A. Hood, 72

Roman alphabet, 207-9

rps. See /r/

rr, 76. See also /r/

rrh, 76, 212. See also /r/

+rrhage, 76

+rrhagia, 76

+rrhagic, 76

+rrhagy, 76

+rrhaphy, 76

+rrhea, 76

+rrheuma, 76

+rrhexis, 76

+rrhinia, 76

Rudorf, Erwin H. Jr. See Hanna

Rule of Syllabicity, 59-60, 65, 449

Rules and ruliness, 4, 9-10, 24, 25-26, 29- 31, 38, 42-44, 51-52, 56-59, 91, 112, 159-60, 161-62. See also Flap Rule; Processes and procedural rules; Rule of Syllabicity; Tactics and tactical rules

Runes, 209; ash (æ), 209, 213, 259; edh (ð), 209, 210, 384; ligature (œ), 258; thorn, 209, 210, 384; wen, 208, 209; yogh, 97, 209, 459-60

+rupt, 61

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S

/s/, 146, 201, 202, 206; = c, 146, 397, 400, 405-6; in clusters and concatenations, 16, 400,402,406; at complex boundaries, 400, 403-4; = cs, 400; history of, 397; after long vowels, 400, 403; = ps, 397, 399; after reduced vowels, 401, 404-5; = s, 16, 397,400-405; = sc, 397-98; = sch, 397, 400; after short vowels, 400, 401, 402, 404; shortening rules and, 400, 402; at simple boundaries, 400, 401-2; spellings of, 397-405; = ss, 397, 400- 402, 403-5; = st, 380, 397, 399-400; = sth, 391, 397, 400; = sw, 397, 400; after vowel digraphs, 400, 402-3; = z, 84, 397, 399

s, 93, 207, 208-9; word-final, and final e, 82, 148, 394-95, 401, 404-5. See also /s/; /sh/; /z/; /zh/

[-s, -es], 15, 33, 34, 39, 40, 59-60, 75, 80, 82, 395

-s', -'s, 34, 395

[sacc+, sac], 171,356

saf+, 383

Saljapina, Z., and V. Sevoroskin, xxvii

Samuels, Michael, 14, 23

Sapir, Edward, 16

[satch+, sack], 414

Saussure, Ferdinand de, 16, 22

sc. See /k/; /s/; /sh/

sch. See /s/; /sh/

schsch. See /sh/

Schwa. See Reduced vowels

sci+, 411-12

Scragg, D.G., 389

Scribes. See Norman scribes

se-, 262

Self-regulation and self-reorganization, 5-9, 31, 40, 461

Semantic content. See Meaning and content

Semantic demand, 12-13, 14-17, 461-62

semi-, 262, 263

Semivowels, 74, 211, 456-60. See also /w/; /y/

-sen, 302-3

Sets and coforms, 33, 38, 39-47, 58-59, 177, 462

/sh/, 44, 47, 206, 407; = c, 407, 409-10, 412; = ch, 407-8; vs. /ch/, 410-11, 412, 415-16; palatalized spellings of, 44, 407; = s, 407, 409-11; = sc, 407, 409-10, 411-12; = sch, 407-8; = schsch, 408; = sh, 407, 408-9; spellings of, 44, 407-10; = ss, 407, 409-10, 411; = t, 407, 409-10; = x, 407, 409-10; vs. /zh/, 410

sh, 71, 111, 210, 212. See also /sh/

Shakespeare, William, 21

-ship, 409

Short a. See /a/

Short e. See /e/

Short i. See /i/

Short o, 53, 203, 204-6, 231-40. See also /ä/; /dotted o/

Short u, 53, 203, 204. See also /u/; /dotted u/

Short vowels. See Vowel sounds; and individual consonant and vowel sounds

Short Word Rule, 76, 87-89, 148, 236, 276, 279, 340, 352, 401, 451

Shortening rules, 112. See also Stress Frontshift Rule; Suffix rules; Third Syllable Rule

Sibbald, 19

Sibilants. See Palatal sibilants

Silent final e. See Final e

Silent letters, 54-55, 328, 337-38, 343-46, 352, 389-90, 423-24

Silent reading, vs. reading aloud, 21-22

simil+, 177

Simple addition, 12, 65, 80, 100, 140, 155, 156, 157-58, 162-68, 170-72, 174-75, 178, 180, 182, 183, 185-87, 189, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197,198, 229, 260-61, 262, 273, 281, 398, 418. See also Duplicative addition

Simple boundaries, 56-59, 329. See also individual consonant sounds

Simple fricatives, 373-406. See also /f/; /h/; /s/; /th/; /th/; /v/; /z/

Simple long u. See /u/

Simplicity, in orthography. See Minimum and maximum simplicities; Unity

-sis, 64-65

sk, 74, 361, 362, 363

Skeat, Walter, 18, 50, 61

Skousen, Royal, 23

sl. See /l/

/sm/, 74

sm. See /m/

Smith, Henry Lee, xxxi, 202, 205, 307

Smith, Philip, and R. G. Baker, 23, 32

Smith, Thomas, 3

/sn/, 74

[snugg +, snug], 150

Soft c. See c

Soft g. See g

son+, 432

sonn+, 432

soph+, 379

Sounds, American English, 201-6; distinctive-feature analysis of, 211-12. See also Consonant sounds; Vowel sounds

/sp/, 74

Speech, vs. writing, 14-17, 21-22

Spelling process, 49-50

Spelling pronunciations, 22-24

Spelling reform, 30

Spellings: accepted, unaccepted, unrecorded, 27-29, 30; well- and ill- formed, 26-27. See also Variant spellings

spr, 72

ss, 76, 82, 104. See also /s/; /sh/; /z/

sse, 76

/st/, 74

st, 104, 264, 265, 267, 268, 380, 416, See also /s/

-st. See -ist

Standardized spelling, rise of, 8, 21-22, 24

Status words, and adaption, 20

Stems, 35-37, 162-68. See also Primes

-ster; 303

sth. See /s/

+stice, 59

stit+, 59

Stops, 206, 327-49, 350-72. See also /b/; /d/; /g/; /k/; /p/; /t/

Strang, Barbara, 97

[streng+, strong], 437

Stress, 49; and de-stressing, 151-54; noun-verb stress pairs, 168; in strings, 90-93, 94, 127-28; and suffix rules, 112-13, 115-18, 120-21, 133; and twinning, 161, 162, 164, 165-74

Stress Frontshift Rule, 112, 127-28, 214-15, 218, 224, 234, 244-45, 246, 330, 335, 340, 347, 353, 365, 377, 393, 395, 419, 427, 432, 444, 445, 452; holdouts to, 129-30

Strings, 90-91; /r/-colored vowels and, 307-8; VCe (See VCV, and final e). See also VC#; VCC; VC'C'le; etc.

Stubbs, Michael, xxv, 4, 17, 23, 462

su-, 184

sub-, 34, 57, 78-79, 177, 183-86, 245, 336, 341, 356, 372, 383, 453

Subelemental and subsyllabic patterning. See Pattern and regularity

suc-, 183, 356, 372

sud-, 341

suf-, 183, 383

Suffix rules, 112-22, 127; twinning and, 161, 172-73. See also -ic; -id; -ion; -ish2; -it; -ity; -ule

Suffixes, 32-33, 34-35, 36, 57-59, 112-22; derivational and inflectional, 34-35; non- terminative, 46-47. See also individual suffixes

sug-, 183

sum-, 183

[summ+, sum], 427

[sumpt+, +sume], 36, 37, 39-41

sup-, 183, 336

super-, 34, 184

sur- (assimilated form of sub-), 183-84, 453

sur- (over, above), 184, 324

sus-, 184

/sw/, 74, 457, 458

sw. See /s/

sy-, 198

syl-, 198

Syllabic l. See /schwal/

Syllabicity. See Rule of Syllabicity

Syllables: elements and, 59-60; boundaries for, 59-60, 61-63, 71-72

sym-, 198, 428

syn-, 177, 197-98, 428

Systems and systematicity, xxv, 4, 5-9, 12-13, 30-31, 155, 159-60, 461

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T

/t/, 206, 327-28; = bt, 17-18, 342, 344; = cht, 342, 346; in clusters and concatenations, 348; at complex boundaries, 349; = ct, 342, 345; = dt, 342, 345; = ed, 342, 343; flapped, 342-43; = ght, 345-46; after long vowels, 348; = phth, 346; = pt, 342, 344-45; after reduced vowels, 349; after short vowels, 347-48, 349; shortening rules and, 347-48; at simple boundaries, 346-47; spellings of, 342-49; = t, 327-28, 342, 346-48, 349; = th, 342, 343; = tt, 327-28, 342, 346, 349; = tw, 342, 346; after vowel digraphs, 348

t, 207; in Latinate verbs, 61-62. See also /sh/; /t/; zh/

-t (verb suffix), 7

+tach, 413

Tactics and tactical rules, 9, 69-141; /r/-colored vowels and, 307-8. See also Consonant sequence rules; Distribution rules; Shortening rules; Strings; Vowel Doublet Rule

[tann+, tan], 171

tch, 72, 77, 210. See also /ch/

techn+, 358

Tense vowels. See Vowel sounds

Terminative elements. See Elements

[terr+1, +ter1] (earth), 172

[terr+2, +ter2] (fright), 172

/th/, 147, 206; = chth, 385; in clusters and concatenations, 385; history of, 384-85; = phth, 385; spellings of, 385-86; = th, 385; = tth, 385

/th/, 206, 384; = th, 147, 385-86

th, 62-63, 71, 108-10, 147, 209, 210, 212. See also /t/; /th/; /th /

theor+, 37

Thesaurarium Trilingue Publicum, 89

Third Syllable Rule, 112, 129, 131-41, 175, 239, 291, 330, 333, 335, 340, 347, 353, 365, 377, 382, 395, 402, 414, 419, 427, 432, 444, 445, 452; conservative analogy in, 139-41; in Latinate disyllables, 138-39, 227, 234; in Old English, 133, 225, 226, 235; preemptors of, 134-38; short vowels and, 214, 218, 224, 227, 234, 239, 245, 246; VCVV and, 135-38; V.V and, 135

Thorn. See Runes

Tight clusters. See Consonant clusters

tm. See /m/

[tonsill+, tonsil], 161, 171

Trager, George, xxxi

trans-, 34, 78

Triplet Rule, 77, 158, 383, 396, 447

Trochaic disyllables. See VCV

tsch. See /ch/

/tsh/, 407, 416

tt. 72, 76. See also /t/

tth. See /th/

/tw/, 74

tw, See /t/

Twinning Rule, 9, 15, 25, 26, 31, 38, 47, 76, 96, 140, 150, 161-76, 212, 332, 337, 341, 349, 354, 375, 383, 393-94, 400, 403, 428, 433, 442, 446, 450, 453; American vs. British, 167-68; final l and, 440; holdouts to, 174-76; nonterminative bases and, 170-72; stress and, 162, 164, 165-70, 173-74; suffix rules and, 161, 172-73; VCC and, 162

tyrann +, 432

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U

/u/, 203, 204; = o, 245-47; = oo, 247; = ou, 247-48; spellings of, 244-48; = u, 244-45; in VC#, 244, 245, 246; in VCC, 244, 245, 246; in shortened VCV, 244-45, 246-47

/dotted u/, 203, 204, 241; history of, 241; = o, 243; = oo, 242; = ou, 243; spellings of, 241-43; = u, 242-43; in VCC, 242

/u/, 203, 211; = eu, 295-96; = ew, 295; history of, 288-89; = o, 288, 291-92; = oe, 293; = oo, 288, 289-90, 291; = ou, 288- 89, 293-95; = ough, 294; persistent, 105, 114-15, 118, 120, 122, 124, 134-35; spellings of, 289-96; Third Syllable Rule and, 291; = u, 288-89, 290-91; = uh, 296; = ui, 296; = uo, 296; VCV and, 289-90; Ve# and, 290-91; V.V and, 291; = w, 296; and /yu/, 297

u, 136, 207, 208, 211, 212, 245-46, 459; insulating, 229, 350-51; and v, 81, 208; word-final, and final e, 20, 95-96, 147, 350-51. See also /e/; /i/; /u/; /dotted u/; /u/; /w/; /yu/

ue, 95-96, 157

ugh. See /yu/

uh. See /u/

ui. See /i/; /u/; /yu/

-ule, 122, 330, 353, 365

-urn, 64

un-, 34, 36, 177, 245

Unaccepted spellings, 27-29

Unigraphs, 90

Unintegrated elements. See Integration; Periphery vs. center

Unity, in orthography, 10-13, 41, 45-46, 139-40, 159-60. See also Conservative analogy; Variety

Unrecorded spellings, 27-29

uo. See /u/

uor. See /dotted ur/

uoy. See /dotted oi/

/ur/ convergence, 454; = ear, 325; = er, 323; = eur, 326; history of, 321-22; = ir, 324; = irr, 324; = our, 325; spellings of, 323-26; = ur, 324; = urr, 324; /wur/ = wor, 323; = yr, 326; = yrr, 326

/dotted ur/, = eur, 321; = oor, 321; = our, 321; spellings of, 320-21; = uor, 321; = ur, 320

ur. See /âr/; /ur/; /dotted ur/; /ydotted ur]

-ure, 153-54, 242, 266

uu, 81

uy. See /i/

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V

/v/, 180, 206, 207-8, 246; in clusters, 376; and /f/, 373-74; = f, 373-74, 376; history of, 373-75; after long vowels, 376; = lv, 376, 380; spellings of, 375-77; after reduced vowels, 377; after short vowels, 376, 377; shortening rules and, 377; = v, 373-75, 376-77; = vv, 375-76

v, 93, 207, 208, 373-77; vs. u, 208, 246; in VCV, 128-29, 218-19, 225, 234; word-final, and final e, 147, 375. See also /v/

Vachek, Josef, 6, 17, 207

Variant spellings, 21-22, 25-26; c and s, 406; f and ph, 379; l vs. ll, 439, 440-41; r vs. rr; 450

Variety, in orthography, 10-11, 13-14, 140. See also Unity

VC# string, 93-94, 97, 140, 162, 163, 165, 172-73, 174, 176, 214, 218, 224, 227, 233, 234, 244, 245, 246, 261, 264, 369, 381, 401

VCC string, 31, 47, 88, 90, 96-98, 100-107, 112, 113, 121-22, 140, 162, 214, 217-18, 223, 226-27, 233, 239, 242, 244, 245, 246, 328-30, 332, 337, 341-42, 349, 354, 368, 383, 394, 396, 404, 413, 415, 420, 429, 434, 447, 454; holdouts to, 101-7, 262, 271, 283; vs. VCV, 96-98, 99, 129, 150, 162. See also "in clusters and concatenations," under individual consonant sounds

VC'C'le string, 80, 106, 329, 331, 333, 337, 342, 349, 355, 361, 368-69, 380, 384, 394, 400, 401, 404. See also le#

VCe# string. See VCV, and final e

VCle string, 105-6, 251-52, 274-75, 277, 283, 299, 368-69

VCrV string, 106, 251-52, 261, 274-75, 277, 283, 299

VCV string, 90, 96-98, 107-11, 112-15, 123-30, 140, 141, 162, 307; and final e, 107-8, 145, 148-49, 151-54, 159-60; in iambic disyllables, 123; with long head vowels, 114-15, 118-19, 120, 122, 123-26, 129-30, 134-38, 140-41, 145, 151-53, 154-57, 251, 253-54, 260, 263, 264, 272, 276-77, 281, 289-90, 299 (See also individual consonant sounds); with short head vowels, 69, 112-14, 115-16, 118-19, 120-22, 127-30, 131-33, 138-39, 146, 147, 151-54, 214-15, 218-19, 224-26, 227, 233, 234-35, 242-43, 244-45, 246-47 (See also individual consonant sounds); in trochaic disyllables, 123-26, 127-30; v in (See v). See also VCC

VCVV string, 119, 135-38

Ve# string, 94-96, 145, 157-58, 273, 281, 290-91, 299

Velar fricative, in Old English, 209, 247-48, 255, 271, 274, 278, 286, 294, 345. See also gh

Velar stops. See /g/; /k/

Velars, before /ydotted u/, 297-98

velle+, 38

Venezky, Richard, xxv, xxvii, 4, 17, 30, 53, 71, 205, 307, 316, 409

Visual bias, growth of, 13, 21-24

[voc+, +voke], 363-64

Voiced and voiceless consonants, 73-74, 327

Vowel digraphs. See individual vowel digraphs and individual consonants

Vowel Doublet Rule, 81-82, 86

Vowel lengthening and shortening, 97-98, 125-26, 258-59, 271, 275, 280

Vowel letters, 210-12. See also individual vowel letters

Vowel sequence rules, 81-82. See also Vowel Doublet Rule

Vowel sounds, American English, 74, 203-6, 210-12; free and checked, 53, 205; head, 90; lax and tense, 53, 205-6; low back, 204-6, 231-40; /r/-colored, 307-26; short and long, 53, 97-98, 203, 219. See also individual consonant and vowel sounds

Vowel unigraphs, 90

Vowels, vs. Consonants, 210-12, 426, 459

vv, 76. See also /v/

V.V string, 91-93, 115, 118, 135, 140, 242-43, 252, 254, 260-61, 262-64, 272-73, 277, 281, 291, 299

VVC'C' string, 100

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W

/w/, 206, 208, 211, 212, 232, 233, 239, 313, 400; = hu, 456; = ju, 456; = o, 456; = au, 456; spellings of, 456-59; = u, 456, 457; = w, 456, 458-59; = wh, 71- 72, 458-59

w, 81, 207, 208, 212, 296. See also /w/

Walker, J., 104

war. See /ôr/

-ward, 236

Watkins, Calvert, 346

Watt, Ian, 462

Webster, Noah, 132, 213, 370

Weir, Ruth, 4

Well-formed spellings, 26-27

Wen. See Runes

werg- (Indo-European root), 448

wergh- (Indo-European root), 448

werp- (Indo-European root), 448

Wertheimer, Max, 29

West Germanic gemination, 100

wh, 62-63, 71-72, 212. See also /h/; /w/

Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 72

-wise, 272

/wôr/. See /ôr/

wor. See /ur/

Word-final doublets, 76-77

Word-initial doublets, 76

wr, 212. See also /r/

wreg- (Indo-European root), 448

wreik- (Indo-European root), 448

wreit- (Indo-European root), 448

Writing: public uses of, 24; vs. speech, 16-17, 21-22, 461

Written Standard English, 14, 21-22, 23-24, 203

wrizd- (Indo-European root), 448

/wur/. See /ur/

Wyld, Henry, 10-11

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X

x, 74, 89, 100, 163, 207, 351-52, 370-71, 436-37. See also /g/; /k/; /sh/; /z/

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Y

/y/, 206, 211, 212, 456; = e, 459; = i, 459- 60; = j, 460; = ll, 459; spellings of, 459-60; = y, 459; = z, 459-60

y, 207, 208, 211, 212, 226-27. See also /e/; /i/; /y/

-y, 157, 262, 373,.375

y-to-i tactics, 37, 58, 65, 84-87, 157, 208, 262-63, 273, 277, 278. See also i

ye, 96

-yer, 459

Yogh. See Runes

yr. See /ur/

yrr. See /ur/

/ydotted u/, 241, 242-43

/yu/, 203, 288, 297-99; = eau, 300; = eu, 300; = ew, 299; history of, 297; = ieu, 300; = iew, 300; spellings of, 299-300; vs. /u/, 297-99; = u, 299; = ugh, 300; = ui, 300; VCC and, 299; in VCle and VCr; 299; VCV and, 299; Ve# and, 299; V.V and, 299

/ydotted ur/, 320; = eur; 321; = urV, 320-21

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Z

/z/, 202, 206; in clusters, 15, 394, 393, 395; at complex boundaries, 392, 393-94; = cz. 391; history of, 391; after long vowels, 392, 393, 396; after reduced vowels, 392, 394, 396; = s, 15, 16, 391- 92, 394-97; after short vowels, 392, 393, 394, 395; and shortening rules, 392, 393, 394. 395; at simple boundaries, 392, 393, 395; spellings of, 391-97; = ss. 391-92, 394-96; = sth, 391; = ts, 391; = tz. 391; after vowel digraphs, 392, 393, 396; word-final, 392, 394-95; = x, 391; = z, 391-94, 396-97; = zz, 391-92, 393-94

z, 93, 100, 207, 208, 391-94, 459-60; word-final, and final e, 83-84, 148, 392. See also /z/

-ze. See -ize

Zettersten, Arne, 72

/zh/, 44, 206, 407; = g, 146, 422; history of, 421-22; = j, 422; vs. /j/, 146, 421-22; palatalized spellings of, 44, 422; = s, 422; vs. /sh/, 410; spellings of, 422; = t, 422; = z, 422

zz, 76, 83-84. See also /z/

 

Cummings, D. W. American English Spelling: An Informal Description, pp. xxv-xxix, vii-xxiv, 539-555. 1988 [Copyright Holder]. Reproduced with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press (http://www.jhupbooks.com).

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