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Elements and Procedures

Student's Edition of Chapter 10

Deleting Silent Final <e>

In order to help you arrive at a good and reliable rule for deleting final <e>, we'll look one by one at the different kinds of final <e>'s discussed in the previous chapter — those that mark long vowels, those that mark soft <c> and <g>, those that mark voiced <th>, those that insulate <u>, <v>, <s>, and <z>, and those that are fossils.

Deleting the <e> that Marks Long Vowels. In the previous chapter you saw that a silent final <e> regularly marks a preceding vowel as long if (i) there is no or only one consonant letter between the vowel and the <e> (due and dune), or (ii) if <st>, or <ng> fall between an <a> and the final <e> (chaste and change) or if <th> falls between the vowel and the final <e> (bathe, clothe), or (iii) if the word ends in <le> and there is a single consonant between the <l> and the vowel (able and bugle).

Turn back to Array 22. Examine the words where deletion occurs.

What is deleted in all of them?

What two-letter sequence always precedes the deleted letter: VC? CV? VV? or CC?     

What always follows the deleted letter, a vowel or a consonant?

Is the vowel sound that precedes the deleted letter long or short?

The stems of the words in Array 48 all contain final <e>'s that mark preceding long vowels. Analyze the words into their free stems and suffixes. Show any cases of deletion, as has been done with baker. If you get stuck, use your dictionary.

Array 48

Words Analysis into Free Stem and Suffix
baker 1. bak/e+er
bribed 2.
compensatory 3.
consumable 4.
creation 5.
dividable 6.
famous 7.
graceful 8.
graded 9.
granulose 10.
hasten 11.
inscribable 12
lifeless 13.
likable 14.
mated 15.
mistakable 16.
notable 17.
ogled 18.
polar 19.
quaked 20.
rifling 21.
ripen 22.
ruler 23.
shaking 24.
smoking 25.
staples 26.
wasting 27.

Now you have enough data and observations for a first try at describing the final <e> deletions with which you've been working. Just as was the case with your written statements about the twinning of final consonants, this first try at a best answer will be your hypothesis. Write the best answer you can to the following question: "In the words in Arrays 22 and 48 when do you delete the silent final <e> that marks a preceding long vowel?"

Final <e> Hypothesis: 

 

 

 

The puzzle below is just a reminder of twinning. You are given the bases and suffixes to form fifteen words. Combine the bases and suffixes to form the fifteen words. Watch especially for cases where the final consonant of the base is twinned. When you have the words, fit them into the puzzle.

5-letter words:
ray + ed › = _______________
sew + er› = _______________
tow + ed› = _______________
toy + ed› = _______________

6-letter words:
dip + er› = _______________
dot + ed› = _______________
red + er› = _______________
suit + ed› = _______________

8-letter words:
dog + ed› + ly› = _______________
drab + est› = _______________
scrub + ed› = _______________
strip + er› = _______________
thread + ed› = _______________
throb + ed› = _______________
wrap + er› + s› = _______________

t                                
w                
i                  
n                  
n                  
i                  
n                
g                                

VCCV and VCV Again. Before, when you were just beginning to write your Twinning Rule, you found the following pattern:

vccv      vs.     vcv
shamming vs. shaming

    vccv   vs.      vcv
scrapped vs. scraped

 vccv    vs.  vcv
bidding vs. biding

The VCCV words all have short first vowels; the VCV words all have long first vowels. You saw that a final consonant is twinned in order to end up with a VCCV pattern rather than VCV, thus keeping the first vowel looking short.

In words like shame, scrape, and bide the silent final <e> fills out the VCV pattern, making the first vowel look long. When we add a suffix that starts with a vowel to such a word, we can and do delete the final <e> that marks the long vowel because the vowel in the suffix fills out the VCV pattern so that the final <e> is no longer needed.

Write a sentence that explains why the silent final <e> that marks a long vowel can and does delete when it does:

 

 

 

 

Deleting the <e> that Marks Consonants. You now have a hypothesis that describes when to delete the final <e> that marks long vowels. But, as we've seen, final <e> can do a number of things other than mark long vowels. And some kinds of final <e>'s are deleted in slightly different ways — for instance, the final <e> that marks soft <c> or soft <g>.

Analyze the words in Array 49 into free stem and suffix, showing any final <e> deletions:

Array 49

Words Analysis Words Analysis
chancy    chanc/e+y›    knowledgeable                          
coercible   princedom  
dancer   fierceness  
peaceful   cringing  
pierced   manageable  
princess   voyager  
voiceless   hinges  
fencing   bulgy  
voicecast   embraceable  
chancewise   lungeous  

The final <e> that marks soft <c> or <g> deletes before what three letters? ______, ______, and ______.

Be ready to discuss this question: Why does the final <e> that marks soft <c> or <g> delete only before these three letters and no others?

As you found earlier, final <e> also marks the voiced <th>. Analyze the words in Array 50 into free stem and suffix, marking any final <e> deletions.

Array 50

Words Analysis Words Analysis
bather     bath/e+er›    teething                        
blithesome   tithable  
loathed   wreathed  
clothing   scatheful  
seething   scythes  
sheather   breather  

The final <e> that marks voiced <th> deletes before what letters? ______, ______, and ______.

Write the shortest, clearest sentence you can describing when to delete the final <e> that marks soft <c> or <g> or voiced <th>:

 

 

 

Deleting the <e> that Insulates. The final <e> that keeps <u> or <v> or single <z> or single <s> in a base from coming at the end of a word deletes like the final <e> that marks long vowels. Analyze the words in Array 51 into free stems plus suffix, marking any cases of deletion.

Array 51

Words Analysis Words Analysis
breezy    breez/e+y responsive                        
brusquely                         reverses  
caves   sneezed  
curvaceous   sneezeless  
defensible   sparsely  
freezable   teaser  
gauzelike   tension  
groovy   tensor  
hoarseness   tonguing  
lapsus   unbelievable  
leagued   valvule  
leaguer   waiver  
loving   wheezes  
oozing   wheezing  

The final <e> that insulates <u>, <v>, <s>, or <z> deletes before what letters?

 

Write the shortest, clearest sentence you can that describes when to delete the final <e> that insulates <u>, <v>, <s>, or <z>:

 

 

 

 

Deleting the Fossil <e>. Array 52 will help you see that there are no real surprises in the way the fossil <e> deletes. When you are given a word in the "Words" column, analyze it into free stem and suffix in the "Elements and procedures" column, showing any deletions. When you are given elements in the "Elements and Procedures" column, combine them into a word, again showing any deletions, and write it in the "Words" column. For each one, answer the question asked in the right-hand column. The first one has been done for you.

Array 52

Words Elements and Procedures Was the <e> deleted?
adventurous adventur/e+ous Yes
avalanched    
awesome    
                              destine+y›  
hygienic    
  route+ine›  
medicinal    
fragileness    
masculinely    
  juvenile+ity›  
  imagine+ary›  
  eye+ed›  
eyeful    
  examine+ation›  
  engine+eer›  
  torture+ous›  
  infinite+y›  

Fossil final <e> is deleted before what letters?

 

Sometimes a silent final <e> can serve two functions at once — marking a long vowel and either insulating or marking another letter. Analyze the words below into free stem and suffix and examine the behavior of the final <e> that serves two functions at the same time:

Array 53

Words Analysis Words Analysis
basement                         pacer                        
bather   pavement  
bathing   placement  
changeable   plaguing  
closeness   priceless  
clothing   racer  
courageous   rampageous  
diffusible   rampages  
easement   rangy  
engaging   riser  
forger   rover  
fusion   sagely  
gracious   slavishly  
lacy   spacing  
outrageous   vaguest  

Is a final <e> that is serving two functions at once deleted any differently from a final <e> that is serving only one function?

Your Silent Final <e> Deletion Rule. Taking into account all that you've learned about final <e>'s, including those that mark or insulate vowels or consonants, and those that are fossils of one kind or another, write out a last version of your final <e> hypothesis, which now quite properly can be called a rule.

One hint: You may have noticed that the fossil <e> and the final <e> that insulates letters seemed to be deleted before only certain vowels, not all of them. We have not been able to find words that have those kinds of final <e> and that take suffixes starting with all the vowels. But we can assume that if and when such words are found, these final <e>'s would be deleted before all vowels, just like the final <e> that marks long vowels. So it is safe to simplify in these cases and just say that these final <e>'s are deleted when suffixes are added that start with any vowels.

The one kind of final <e> that is not deleted before all vowels is the one that marks soft <c> and <g>. Watch for it when you write your rule.

Silent Final <e> Deletion Rule:

 

 

 

 

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