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cummings, spell, spelling, english, words, spellers, teachers, reading, read, reader cummings, spell, spelling, english, words, spellers, teachers, reading, read, reader

Elements and Procedures

Table of Contents

Preface: To the Teacher iv

1 Elements and Analysis 6
  Analysis 6
  Elements 6
  Summing Up 10

2 Bases 12
  Free Bases 12
  Bound Bases 12
  Summing Up 15

3 Stems and Compounds 17
  Stems 17
  Setting Bound Elements Free 18
  Compound Words 18
  Summing Up 19

4 Suffixes 20
  Inflectional Suffixes 20
  Derivational Suffixes 25
  A Different Kind of Derivational Suffix 29
  Summing Up 31

5 Prefixes 32
  What Prefixes Are 32
  What Prefixes Mean 34

6 Analysis and Your Dictionary 37
  How to Find Words in Your Dictionary 37
  More Analysis 38

7 Procedures and Rules 45
  Simple Addition 45
  The Three Changes 45
  Vowel and Consonant Letters 48
  Vowel Sounds 49
  Summing Up 52

8 Twinning 53
  What Twinning Is 53
  Twinning Hypothesis 56
  Two Important Patterns: VCCV and VCV 57
  Twinning Hypothesis (1st Revision) 59
  Primary Word Stress 59
  Secondary Stress 64
  Your Twinning Rule 65
  Twinning and Variant Spellings 66
  Summing Up. 69

9 Silent Final <e> 71
  Silent Final <e> as Vowel Marker 71
  Silent Final <e> as a Consonant Marker 77
  Silent Final <e> as an Insulator 79
  Fossil Final <e> 81
  The Short Word Rule 83
  Final <e> after Unstressed Vowels 84
  Summing Up. 88

10 Deleting Silent Final <e> 90
  Deleting the <e> that Marks Long Vowels. 90
  Final <e> Hypothesis 91
  VCCV and VCV Again. 93
  Deleting the <e> that Marks Consonants 93
  Deleting the <e> that Insulates 94
  Deleting the Fossil <e> 95
  Your Silent Final <e> Deletion Rule 97

11 Assimilated Prefixes 99
  Assimilation 99
  The Prefix Com- 100
  The Prefix Ad- 102
  The Prefix Ex- 104
  The Prefix Sub- 106
  Other Prefixes that Assimilate 109
   Syn- 109
   In-1,2 110
   Dis- 111

12 Palatalization 114
  Palatalized Spellings 114
  The Suffix -ion and [shschwan] 114
  Words with <ition> 118
  Sets 119
  The Set {cede, ceed, cess} 120
  The Set {tend, tent1, tense} 122
  Some Conclusions about [shschwan] 123
  The Suffix -ion and [zhschwan] 124
  Summing Up 126

13 <I> Before <E> 129
  The Original Rule 129
  The First Revision 131
  Long <i> Spelled <ei> 132
  Special Cases and Hardcore Holdouts 133
  Either, neither 133
  Inveigle, sheik 133
  Their, heir 133
  Your Final Rule 135

14 The Elusive Schwa 137
  What Schwa Is 137
  Schwa and Stress-shifting 137
  Some Conclusions about Schwa 140

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cummings, spell, spelling, english, words, spellers, teachers, reading, read, reader