i need to get some info on the vcv(vowel consonant vowel) rule and the exception to them
A basic statement of the vowel-consonant-vowel rule is this: In a VCV string a stressed head vowel is regularly long. The clearest and most reliable instance of this rule is the special case involving silent final <e>: In a VCe# string a stressed head vowel is regularly long, as in rate. The VCV pattern is a very important one in both the spelling and the reading of English, especially as it contrasts with the VCC pattern, which regularly marks short vowels – as in contrasting pairs like latter, later , canning, caning, and sander, saner.
The notion of the VCV string helps describe the same long vs. short vowel distinction that is often described in terms of open and closed syllables. Open syllables end with a vowel; closed end with a consonant. Open syllables typically contain long vowels; closed typically contain short. In a VCV string the consonant goes with the second vowel, putting the first vowel at the end of an open syllable. In a VCC string the consonants split, the first going with the first vowel, putting the first vowel in a closed syllable. The VCV/VCC contrast describes this feature of English spelling while avoiding the surprisingly complex issue of syllable division.
However, there are some more local shortening rules that can preempt the general VCV rule: (i) the Stress Front-shift Rule, (ii) the Third Syllable Rule, and (iii) a small set of suffix rules. The Stress Front-shift Rule states that in disyllablic words borrowed from French, the stressed vowel will be short even at the head of a VCV string , as in lemon . The Third Syllable Rule states that a stressed head vowel in a VCV string will be short if it is in the third (sometimes the fourth) syllable from the end of the word, as in general. Among the suffix rules, a vowel preceding the suffixes -ic, -id, -ity, and -ule will regularly be short, even if it is the stressed head of a VCV string – as in melodic, acid, sanity, and schedule.
Further complicating the issue, there are a number of holdouts to each of these shortening rules, but still the foregoing description is quite reliable.
For more on the Stress Frontshift Rule, see “Explication, Evolution, and Orthography” in the Short Articles section of this website, especially pages 43-46. For more on VCV elsewhere on this website, look at “Orthographic Confessions” in the Short Articles section, searching on “VCV.” Also, in the Basic Speller section of the site the “A Teachers Introduction” has some information at the subheading “Tactical Patterns and Rules”, as do lessons 11 and 13 from Book 8. For even more on the VCV string, see my American English Spelling
, pages 96-98, 107-11, and 123-30. For more on the effects of the various shortening rules on VCV strings, see AES
, pages 112-22, 131-41. Otto Jespersen discusses the Third Syllable Rule in his A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles: Volume 1, Sounds and Spelling
. And Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle, in The Sound Pattern of English
, discuss it from a different perspective, as the Trisyllabic Laxing Rule.