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what does pretrified mean and what are there antonyms and synonms

I’m assuming that there’s a typo in your question and that you meant to type petrified. The original meaning of petrify was “to turn to stone” – as in petrified wood. The base petr- means “stone”, and occurs in our word petroleum, whose root meaning is “rock oil”. In a slightly different form, the base petr- also occurs in the name Peter. Thus, Christ says to the apostle Peter, “thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church”. Very early on the meaning of petrify expanded to something like “to harden, to deprive of feeling and movement”. An early quote from the 17th century poet John Donne has “Doe not petrifie and harden thy Conscience against these holy suggestions.” And then in time the meaning expanded to something like “to horrify, to frighten” – thus making one, like stone, hard and unable to move.

Among the synonyms for the original meaning listed in Roget’s Thesaurus are harden, indurate, lapidify, fossilize, mineralize, lithify, vitrify, calcify, ossify. Among synonyms for the more modern expanded meaning would be horrify, daze, stun, bemuse, stupefy, torpify, benumb, paralyze.

Antonyms are harder: For the original meaning I would guess things like liquefy, liquesce, melt, deliquesce. Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms suggests the following for contrasted terms for the expanded meaning: delight, rejoice, gladden, gratify – all of which seem to me to be a bit of a reach.

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cummings, spell, spelling, english, words, spellers, teachers, reading, read, reader